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We are focused on integrating cognitive neuroscience, genetics, AI and clinical research to accelerate the discovery of new treatments for drug addiction in order to improve mental health and well-being.



Neural mechanisms mediating appetitive regulation and smoking in nicotine addiction

This treatment study is examining the effects of a behavioral intervention on smoking behavior in daily adult cigarette smokers who are interested in quitting smoking. Participants will either receive 4 weeks of MORE (Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement) or CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), and then make an attempt to quit smoking. The study will take place over the course of 8 weeks and will include group therapy sessions and two fMRI scans.

An fMRI pilot study of the effects of Clavulanic Acid on cigarette withdrawal


This study is looking at the effects of Clavulanic Acid (a drug used in antibiotics) on brain activity and smoking withdrawal.  Participants do not need to be looking to quit but must be willing to make a quit attempt during their participation.  This study involves 6 visits over 2 weeks and includes two fMRI scans.

Research Studies



Carpenter MJ, Gray KM, Wahlquist AE, Cropsey K, Saladin ME, Froeliger B, Smith TT, Toll BA, Dahne J. (2021). A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of Remote Varenicline Sampling to Promote Treatment Engagement and Smoking Cessation.  Nicotine Tob Res. PMID: 33249458

Cole, C., Powers, S., Tomko, R., Froeliger, B., Valafar, H. (2021). Quantitation of Smoking Characteristics using Smartwatch Technology: Pilot Feasibility Study of New Technology. JMIR Formative Research. PMID: 33544083

Garland, E.L., Fix, S., Hudak, J.M., Bernat, E., Nakamura, Y. Hanley, A.W., Donaldson, G.W., Marchand, W., & Froeliger, B. (2021). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement remediates anhedonia in chronic opioid use by enhancing neurophysiological responses during savoring of natural rewards. Psychological Medicine. PMID: Pending 

Hudak, J., Prince, K., Marchand, W., Nakamura, Y., Hanley, A., Bryan, C., Froeliger, B., Garland, E.L. (2021). The Temporal Dynamics of Emotion Dysregulation in Prescription Opioid Misuse. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. PMID: 32589895.

Stephanie K Jones, MS, Bethany J Wolf, PhD, Brett Froeliger, PhD, Kristin Wallace, PhD, Matthew J Carpenter, PhD, Anthony J Alberg, PhD (2021). Nicotine metabolism predicted by CYP2A6 genotypes in relation to smoking cessation: A systematic review, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2021; ntab175,


Halbert CH, Jefferson MS, Danielson C, Froeliger, B, Giordanoa A, Thaxton J. (2020). An observational study and randomized trial of stress reactivity in cancer disparities. Health Psychology. Sep;39(9):745-757. doi: 10.1037/hea0000882. PMID: 32833476

McConnell, P. A., E. L. Garland, J. K. Zubieta, R. Newman-Norlund, S. Powers and Froeliger, B. (2020). "Impaired frontostriatal functional connectivity among chronic opioid using pain patients is associated with dysregulated affect." Addict Biol. Mar;25(2):e12743. doi: 10.1111/adb.12743. Epub 2019 Apr 4. PMID: 30945801

Newman-Norlund, R., Gibson, M., McConnell, P., Froeliger, B. (2020). Dissociable effects of theta-burst repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation to the inferior frontal gyrus on inhibitory control in nicotine addiction. Frontiers in Psychiatry. Apr 15;11:260. PMID: 32351412

​2019 and older

Garland, E.L., Atchley, R., Howard, M., Zubieta, J-K., Froeliger, B. (2019). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Restructures Reward Processing Among Chronic Opioid Users: Neurophysiological and Affective Evidence. Science Advances 5(10). PMID 31663023

Garland, E. L., M. A. Bryan, S. E. Priddy, M. R. Riquino, Froeliger, B., and M. O. Howard (2019). "Effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Versus Social Support on Negative Affective Interference During Inhibitory Control Among Opioid-Treated Chronic Pain Patients: A Pilot Mechanistic Study." Ann Behav Med 53(10): 865-876. PMID: 30668631

Garland, E. L., A. W. Hanley, M. R. Riquino, S. E. Reese, A. K. Baker, K. Salas, B. P. Yack, C. E. Bedford, M. A. Bryan, R. Atchley, Y. Nakamura, Froeliger, B., and M. O. Howard (2019). "Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement reduces opioid misuse risk via analgesic and positive psychological mechanisms: A randomized controlled trial." J Consult Clin Psychol 87(10): 927-940. PMID: 31556669


Mathew, A. R., B. W. Heckman, B. Froeliger, M. E. Saladin, R. A. Brown, B. Hitsman and M. J. Carpenter (2019). "Multi-method assessment of distress tolerance and smoking-related factors among adult daily smokers." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 27(2): 136-145. PMID: 30589279


Tomko, R. L., Froeliger, B., McClure, E. A., Saladin, M.E., and Gray, K.M. (2019). Gender Differences in Smoking Latency Following Exposure to Stressful Images Administered in Naturalistic Settings. Journal of Womens Health. 28 (11): 1593-1593.


Tomko, R. L., E. A. McClure, P. A. Cato, J. B. Wang, M. J. Carpenter, J. L. Karelitz, Froeliger, B., M. E. Saladin and K. M. Gray (2019). "An electronic, smart lighter to measure cigarette smoking: A pilot study to assess feasibility and initial validity." Addict Behav 98: 106052. PMID: 31415971

Garland, E.L., Atchley, R., Howard, M., Zubieta, J-K., Froeliger, B. (accepted). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Reduces Opioid Misuse Risk Via Analgesic and Positive Psychological Mechanisms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Garland, E.L., Bryan, M.A., Priddy, S.E., Riquino, M.R., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (in press). Effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement Versus Social Support on Negative Affective Interference During Inhibitory Control Among Opioid-Treated Chronic Pain Patients: A Pilot Mechanistic Study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. Jan 22. PMID: 30668631.

Fridriksson, J.F., Rorden, C., Newman-Norlund, R., Froeliger,B., Thrasher, J. (2018). Smokers' Neurological Responses to Novel and Repeated Health Warning Labels (HWLs) from Cigarette Packages. Frontiers in Psychology.

Badran, B.W., Austelle, C.W., Smith, N.R., Glusman, C.E., Froeliger, B., Garland, E.L., Borckardt, J.J., George, M.S., Short, B. (2017). A double-blind study exploring the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tic’s) to potentially enhance mindfulness meditation (E-meditation). Brain Stimulation. Jan-Feb; 10 (1): 152-154. PMID: 27839723.

Carpenter MJ, Heckman BW, Wahlquist AE, Wagener TL, Goniewicz ML, Gray KM, Froeliger B, Cummings KM. A naturalistic, randomized pilot trial of e-cigarettes: Uptake, exposure, and behavioral effects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2017;26:1795-803. PMCID: 5713898.

Froeliger, B., Mathew, A.R., McConnell, P.A., Eichberg, C., Saladin, M.E., Carpenter, M.J., Garland, E.L. (in press). Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 2017.

Froeliger, B., McConnell, P.A., Sweitzer, M.A., Bell, S., Kozink, R.V., Eichberg, C., Gray, K.M., McClernon, F.J. (2017). Association Between Baseline Corticothalamic-Mediated Inhibitory Control and Smoking Relapse Vulnerability. JAMA Psychiatry. Mar 1. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0017

Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (2017). Deficits in Autonomic Indices of Emotion Regulation and Reward Processing Associated with Prescription Opioid Use and Misuse. Psychopharmacology. Feb; 234 (4): 621-629, PMID: 27933366.

Garland, E.L., Howard, M.O., Priddy, S., McConnell, P.A., Riquino, M.R., Froeliger, B. (in press). Mindfulness Training Applied to Addiction Therapy: Insights into the Neural Mechanisms of Positive Behavioral Change. Neuroscience and Neuroeconomics.

Garland, E.L., Howard, M.O.. Zubieta, J.K., Froeliger, B. (2017).  Restructuring Hedonic Dysregulation in Chronic Pain and Prescription Opioid Misuse: Effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement on Responsiveness to Drug Cues and Natural Rewards. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. Feb 10;86(2):111-112. PMID: 28183077

Germeroth, L.J., Carpenter, M.J., Baker, N.L., Froeliger, B., LaRowe, S.D., Saladin, M.E. (2017). A Brief Memory Updating Intervention Significantly Attenuates Smoking Behavior. JAMA Psychiatry. Feb 1.PMID: 28146243.

​Meier, E., Wahlquist, A.E., Heckman, B.W., Cummings, K.M., Froeliger, B., Carpenter, M.J. (2017). A Pilot Randomized Crossover Trial of E-cigarette Sampling Among Smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Feb; 19 (2): 176-182. PMID: 27613880.

McClernon, F.J., Froeliger, B., Rose, J.E., Kozink, R.V., Addicott, M.A., Sweitzer, M.M., Westman, E.C., Van Wert, D.M. (2016). The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function. Addiction Biology. Jul; 21 (4): 954-61. PMID: 25904425.
Osmana, A., Cayir, E., Perez, H., Thrasher, J.F., Froeliger, B. (2016).  Depressive symptoms and responses to cigarette pack warning labels among Mexican smokers. Health Psychology; Feb 11. PMID: 26867043.
Addicott, M.A., Sweitzer, M.M., Froeliger, B., McClernon, F.J. (2015). Increased functional connectivity in an insula-based network is associated with improved smoking cessation outcomes. Neuropsychopharmacology; Oct; 40 (11): 2648-56. PMID: 25895453.
Cortese, B.M., McConnell, P.A., Froeliger, B., Leslie, K., Uhde, T.W. (2015). Burning odor-elicited anxiety in OEF/OIF combat veterans: inverse relationship to gray matter volume in olfactory cortex. Journal of Psychiatric Research. PMID: 26424424.
Froeliger, B., McConnell, P.A., Stankeviciute, N., McClure, E.A., Kalivas, P.W., Gray, K.M. (2015). The effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity, withdrawal symptoms and smoking abstinence: A double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI pilot study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.09.021. PMID: 26454838.
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (2015). Allostatic Dysregulation of Natural Reward Processing in Prescription Opioid Misuse: Autonomic and Attentional Evidence. Biological Psychology. Feb;105:124-9. PMID: 25603284.
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (2015). Neurophysiological Evidence for Remediation of Reward Processing Deficits in Chronic Pain and Opioid Misuse Following Treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: Exploratory ERP Findings from a Pilot RCT. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Jun;82(3):448-59. doi: 10.1007/s10865-014-9607-0. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PMID: 25385024.
Garland, E, Hanley, A., Farb, N., Froeliger, B. (2015). State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal. Mindfulness. Apr 1;6(2):234-242. PMID: 26085851.
Heckman, B., Carpenter, M., Correa, J., Wray, J., Saladin, M., Froeliger, B., Drobes, D., Brandon, T. (2015). Acute Negative Affect Manipulations Increase Smoking Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Addiction. May;110(5):751-60. PMID: 25641624.
Mathew, A.R., Burris, J.L., Froeliger, B., LaRowe, S.D., Saladin, M.E., Carpenter, M.J. (2015). Impulsivity and Cigarette Craving among Adolescent Daily and Occasional Smokers. Addictive Behaviors. Jun;45:134-8. PMID: 25665916.
McClure, E.A., Baker, N.L., Gipson, C.D., Carpenter, M.J., Roper, A., Froeliger, B.E, Kalivas, P.W., Gray, K.M (2015). An open-label pilot trial of N-acetylcysteine and varenicline in adult cigarette smokers. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Jan;41(1):52-6. PMID: 25062287.
McConnell, P.A., Froeliger, B.  (2015). Mindfulness, Mechanisms and Meaning: Perspectives from the Cognitive Neuroscience of Addiction. Psychological Inquiry. PMID: 26924915.
Addicott, M.A., Pearson, J.M., Froeliger, B., Platt, M.L., McClernon, F.J. (2014). Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Dec 30;224(3):254-61. PMID: 25453166
Addicott, M.A., Froeliger, B., Kozink, R.V., Van Wert, D.M., Westman, E.C., Rose, J.E., McClernon, F.J. (2014). Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling. Neuropsychopharmacology. Nov;39(12):2750-9. PMID: 24820539.
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (2014). Effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement on Reward Responsiveness and Opioid Cue-Reactivity. Psychopharmacology. Aug;231(16):3229-38. PMID: 24595503.
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Howard, M.O. (2014). Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Frontiers in Psychiatry. Jan 10;4:173. PMID: 24454293.
Garland, E.L., Manusov, E., Froeliger, B., Kelly, A., Williams, J., Howard, M. (2014). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Chronic Pain and Prescription Opioid Misuse: Results from an Early Stage Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Jun;82(3):448-59. PMID: 24491075.
McConnell, P, Froeliger, B., Garland, E.L., Ives, J,C., Sforzo, G.A. (2014). Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. Frontiers in Psychology.Nov 14;5:1248. PMID: 25452734.
Newman-Norlund, R., Thrasher, J., Fridrikson, J., Brixius, W., Froeliger, B., Hammond, D., Cummings, M. (2014). Neural biomarkers for assessing the effects of different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging. BMJ Open. Dec 31;4(12). PMID: 25552613.
Szabo, S.T., Fowler, J.C., Froeliger, B., Lee, T.H. (2014). Time-dependent changes in nicotine behavioral responsivity during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration and attenuation of cocaine sensitization by mecamylamine. Behavioural Brain Research. Apr 1;262:42-6. PMID: 24412684.
Diggs, G., Froeliger, B., Gilbert, D.G. (2013). Smoker-nonsmoker differences in neural response to appetitive and threatening cues: An fMRI investigation. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Jan 30;211(1):85-7. PMID: 23146252.
Froeliger, B., Modlin, L.A., Kozink, R.V., Wang, L., Garland, E.L., Addicott, M.A., McClernon, F.J. (2013). Frontoparietal Attentional Network Activation Differs Between Smokers and Nonsmokers During Affective Cognition. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Jan 30;211(1):57-63. PMID: 23154092.
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., Passik, S., Howard, M.O. (2013). Attentional Bias For Prescription Opioid Cues Among Opioid-Dependent Chronic Pain Patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Dec;36(6):611-20. PMID: 22968666.
Garland, E. L., Froeliger, B., Zeidan, F., Suveg, K., & Howard, M. O. (2013). The downward spiral of chronic pain, prescription opioid misuse, and addiction: Cognitive, affective, and neuropsychopharmacologic pathways. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. Dec;37(10 Pt 2):2597-607. PMID: 23988582.
Felder, J.N., Smoski, M.J., Kozink, R.V., Froeliger, B., McClernon, F.J., Bizzell, L., Petty, C., Dichter, G.S. (2012). Functional Neural Correlates of Moderate Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 1. PMID: 22998631
Froeliger, B. Garland, E., & McClernon, F.J. (2012). Yoga meditation practitioners exhibit greater gray matter volume and fewer reported cognitive failures: Results of a preliminary voxel-based morphometric analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 2012: 821307. PMID: 23304217.
Froeliger, B., Beckham, J.C., Feldman, M., Kozink, R.V., McClernon, F.J. (2012). Effects of nicotine administration on emotional reactivity in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers: Results of a preliminary fMRI study. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, vol 2012, Article ID 265724, 6 pages. PMID: 22719754.
Froeliger, B., Garland, E.L., Modlin, L.A., McClernon, F.J. (2012). Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: a pilot study. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6. PMID: 22855674
Froeliger, B., Garland, E.L., Kozink, R.V. et al., (2012) Meditation-State Functional Connectivity (msFC): Strengthening of the Dorsal Attention Network and Beyond, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. vol. 2012, Article ID 680407, 9 pages, 2012. PMID: 22536289.
Froeliger, B., Modlin, L.A., Kozink, R.V., Wang, L., McClernon, F.J. (2012). Smoking Abstinence and Depressive Symptoms Modulates the Executive Control System During Emotional Information Processing. Addiction Biology,17, 668-679. PMID: 22081878.
Froeliger, B., Modlin, L.A., Wang, L., Kozink, R.V., McClernon, F.J. (2012). Nicotine Withdrawal Modulates Frontal Brain Function During an Affective Stroop Task. Psychopharmacology, 220, 707-18. PMID: 21989805.
Rose, J.E., McClernon, F.J., Froeliger, B., Behm, F.M., Preud'homme, X., Krystal, A. (2011). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 794-799. PMID: 21762878.
Froeliger, B., Kozink, R.V., Rose, J.E., Behm, F.M., Salley, A.N., and McClernon, F.J. (2010). Hippocampal and striatal grey matter volume are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome: Results of an exploratory voxel-based morphometric analysis. Psychopharmacology, 210, 577-583. PMID: 20424827.
Kozink, R. V., Lutz, A. M., Rose, J. E., Froeliger, B., & McClernon, F. J. (2010). Smoking withdrawal shifts the spatiotemporal dynamics of neurocognition. Addiction Biology, 15, 480-490. PMID: 21040240.
Carlson, J.M., Gilbert, D.G., Rise, H., Huber, J., Rabinovich, N.E., Froeliger, B., & Sugai, C. (2009). Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Trait Depression Influence the Benefit of Nicotine on Spatial Working Memory. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 173-180. PMID: 19586232.
Froeliger, B., Gilbert, D.G., & McClernon, F.J. (2009). Effects of Nicotine on Novelty Detection and Memory Recognition Performance: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Studies of Smokers and Nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology, 205, 625-633. PMID: 19488741.
Gilbert, D.G., Carlson, J.M., Rise, H., Huber, J., Rabinovich, N.E., Sugai, C., & Froeliger, B.E. (2008). Effects of nicotine and depressive traits on affective priming of lateralized emotional word identification. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16, 293-300. PMID: 18729683.
Gilbert, D. G., Sugai, C., Zuo, Y., Rabinovich, N. E., McClernon, F. J., & Froeliger, B. E. (2007). Brain indices of nicotine’s effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 9, 351-363. PMID: 1736

The Team






Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychological Sciences

University of Missouri






Department of Psychological Sciences

University of Missouri



Alex Brown, B.S.



Department of Psychological Sciences

University of Missouri


Terry photo.jpg



Departments of Psychiatry & Psychological Sciences

University of Missouri





For Details, call or text: (573) 340-8636

Text "SMOKE" to 21000 to see if you are eligible





Monday - Friday: 8:30 am - 5:00 pm

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